A major challenge during autonomous navigation in endovascular interventions is the complexity of operating in a deformable but constrained workspace with an instrument. Simulation of deformations for it can provide a cost-effective training platform for path planning. Aim of this study is to develop a realistic, auto-adaptive, and visually plausible simulator to predict vessels' global deformation induced by the robotic catheter's contact and cyclic heartbeat motion. Based on a Position-based Dynamics (PBD) approach for vessel modeling, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed for an auto-adaptive calibration of PBD deformation parameters and of the vessels movement due to a heartbeat. In-vitro experiments were conducted and compared with in-silico results. The end-user evaluation results were reported through quantitative performance metrics and a 5-Point Likert Scale questionnaire. Compared with literature, this simulator has an error of 0.23±0.13% for deformation and 0.30±0.85mm for the aortic root displacement. In-vitro experiments show an error of 1.35±1.38mm for deformation prediction. The end-user evaluation results show that novices are more accustomed to using joystick controllers, and cardiologists are more satisfied with the visual authenticity. The real-time and accurate performance of the simulator make this framework suitable for creating a dynamic environment for autonomous navigation of robotic catheters.
Reference: Position-based dynamics simulator of vessel deformations for path planning in robotic endovascular catheterization.
Li Z, Manzionna E, Monizzi G, Mastrangelo A, Mancini ME, Andreini D, Dankelman J, De Momi E. Med Eng Phys. 2022 Dec;110:103920.