Recent evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species play an important causative role in the onset and progression of valvular diseases. Here, we analyzed the oxidative modifications of albumin (HSA) occurring on Cysteine 34 and the antioxidant capacity of the serum in 44 patients with severe aortic stenosis (36 patients underwent aortic valve replacement and 8 underwent a second aortic valve substitution due to a degenerated bioprosthetic valve), and in 10 healthy donors (controls). Before surgical intervention, patients showed an increase in the oxidized form of albumin (HSA-Cys), a decrease in the native reduced form (HSA-SH), and a significant reduction in serum free sulfhydryl groups and in the total serum antioxidant activity. Patients undergoing a second valve replacement showed levels of HSA-Cys, free sulfhydryl groups, and total antioxidant activity similar to those of controls. In vitro incubation of whole blood with aspirin (ASA) significantly increased the free sulfhydryl groups, suggesting that the in vivo treatment with ASA may contribute to reducing oxidative stress. We also found that N-acetylcysteine and its amide derivative were able to regenerate HSA-SH. In conclusion, the systemic oxidative stress reflected by high levels of HSA-Cys is increased in patients with aortic valve stenosis. Thiol-disulfide breaking agents regenerate HSA-SH, thus paving the way to the use these compounds to mitigate the oxidative stress occurring in the disease.
Reference: Albumin Thiolation and Oxidative Stress Status in Patients with Aortic Valve Stenosis.
Savini C, Tenti E, Mikus E, Eligini S, Munno M, Gaspardo A, Gianazza E, Greco A, Ghilardi S, Aldini G, Tremoli E, Banfi C. Biomolecules. 2023 Nov 28;13(12):1713.