Three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (3D TOE) has been rapidly developed in the last 15 years. Currently, 3D TOE is particularly useful as an additional imaging modality for the cardiac echocardiographers in the echo-lab, for cardiac interventionalists as a tool to guide complex catheter-based procedures cardiac, for surgeons to plan surgical strategies, and for cardiac anaesthesiologists and/or cardiologists, to assess intra-operative results. The authors of this document believe that acquiring 3D data set should become a 'standard part' of the TOE examination. This document provides (i) a basic understanding of the physic of 3D TOE technology which enables the echocardiographer to obtain new skills necessary to acquire, manipulate, and interpret 3D data sets, (ii) a description of valvular pathologies, and (iii) a description of non-valvular pathologies in which 3D TOE has shown to be a diagnostic tool particularly valuable. This document has a new format: instead of figures randomly positioned through the text, it has been organized in tables which include figures. We believe that this arrangement makes easier the lecture by clinical cardiologists and practising echocardiographers.
Reference: Three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography: how to use and when to use-a clinical consensus statement from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging of the European Society of Cardiology.
Faletra FF, Agricola E, Flachskampf FA, Hahn R, Pepi M, Ajmone Marsan N, Wunderlich N, Elif Sade L, Donal E, Zamorano JL, Cosyns B, Vannan M, Edvardsen T, Berrebi A, Popescu BA, Lancellotti P, Lang R, Bäck M, Bertrand PB, Dweck M, Keenan N, Stankovic I. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2023 Jul 24;24(8):e119-e197