The Burden of Impaired Serum Albumin Antioxidant Properties and Glyco-Oxidation in Coronary Heart Disease Patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Antioxidants (Basel)

17 Ottobre Ott 2022 one month ago
  • Banfi C, Brioschi M.

Human serum albumin (HSA) has an important antioxidant activity due to the presence of the reduced cysteine at position 34, which represents the most abundant free thiol in the plasma. In oxidative-based diseases, HSA undergoes S-thiolation (THIO-HSA) with changes in the antioxidant function of albumin that could contribute to the progression of the disease. The aim of this study was to verify, for the first time, the different burdens of THIO-HSA, glycated HSA (GLY-HSA), and advanced glycation end products (AGE) accumulation both in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and in non-diabetic patients, with or without coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we assessed the presence of modified forms of HSA, THIO-HSA, and GLY-HSA by means of mass spectrometry in 33 patients with both T2DM and CHD, in 31 patients with T2DM and without CHD, in 30 patients without diabetes with a history of CHD, and 27 subjects without diabetes and CHD. All the patients' anthropometric and clinical data were recorded including age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and history of CHD defined with anamnestic data. Metabolic parameters, such as fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipids, pentosidine, AGE, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and its soluble form (sRAGE), were measured. AGE and pentosidine are significantly higher in T2DM patients with and without CHD with respect to non-diabetic patients with CHD and control subjects. RAGE levels are significantly higher in T2DM patients with respect to non-diabetic patients, and among T2DM patients, the group with CHD showed significantly higher RAGE levels than those without CHD (217 ± 171 pg/mL and 140 ± 61 pg/mL, respectively). Albumin isoforms discriminate between non-diabetic patients with CHD and T2DM patients with and without CHD and control subjects, with GLY-HSA levels higher in T2DM with and without CHD, and THIO-HSA higher in CHD patients without T2DM. Finally, we demonstrated that the oxidized forms of HSA can increase the expression of the inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) in monocytic cells. In patients with CHD, GLY-HSA and THIO-HSA have a different prevalent distribution, the first one prevailing in patients with T2DM and the second one in patients without T2DM. These findings suggest that albumin quality and homeostasis balance between glyco-oxidation and thiolation might have an impact on the antioxidant defense system in cardiovascular diseases.

Reference: The Burden of Impaired Serum Albumin Antioxidant Properties and Glyco-Oxidation in Coronary Heart Disease Patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Piarulli F, Banfi C, Brioschi M, Altomare A, Ragazzi E, Cosma C, Sartore G, Lapolla A. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Jul 30;11(8):1501.

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