Traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (RFs) and coronary artery disease (CAD) do not always show a direct correlation. We investigated the metabolic differences in a cohort of patients with a high CV risk profile who developed, or did not develop, among those enrolled in the Coronary Atherosclerosis in Outlier Subjects: Protective and Novel Individual Risk Factors Evaluation (CAPIRE) study. We studied 112 subjects with a high CV risk profile, subdividing them according to the presence (CAD/High-RFs) or absence of CAD (No-CAD/High-RFs), assessed by computed tomography angiography. The metabolic differences between the two groups were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Characteristic patterns and specific metabolites emerged for each of the two phenotypic groups: high concentrations of pyruvic acid, pipecolic acid, p-cresol, 3-aminoisobutyric acid, isoleucine, glyceric acid, lactic acid, sucrose, phosphoric acid, trimethylamine-N-oxide, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid, erythritol, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, glucose, leucine, and glutamic acid; and low concentrations of cholesterol, hypoxanthine, glycerol-3-P, and cysteine in the CAD/High-RFs group vs the No-CAD/High-RFs group. Our results show the existence of different metabolic profiles between patients who develop CAD and those who do not, despite comparable high CV risk profiles. A specific cluster of metabolites, rather than a single marker, appears to be able to identify novel predisposing or protective mechanisms towards CAD beyond classic CVRFs.
Why Do High-Risk Patients Develop or Not Develop Coronary Artery Disease? Metabolic Insights from the CAPIRE Study. Deidda M, Noto A, Cadeddu Dessalvi C, Andreini D, Andreotti F, Ferrannini E, Latini R, Maggioni AP, Magnoni M, Mercuro G, On Behalf Of The Capire Investigators. Metabolites. 2022 Jan 27;12(2):123.