Coronary artery disease (CAD) represents the most common cardiovascular disease, with high morbidity and mortality. Historically patients with chest pain of suspected coronary origin have been assessed with functional tests, capable to detect haemodynamic consequences of coronary obstructions through depiction of electrocardiographic changes, myocardial perfusion defects or regional wall motion abnormalities under stress condition. Stress echocardiography (SE), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) represent the functional techniques currently available, and technical developments contributed to increased diagnostic performance of these techniques. More recently, cardiac computed tomography angiography (cCTA) has been developed as a non-invasive anatomical test for a direct visualisation of coronary vessels and detailed description of atherosclerotic burden. Cardiovascular imaging techniques have dramatically enhanced our knowledge regarding physiological aspects and myocardial implications of CAD. Recently, after the publication of important trials, international guidelines recognised these changes, updating indications and level of recommendations. This review aims to summarise current standards with main novelties and specific limitations, and a diagnostic algorithm for up-to-date clinical management is also proposed.
Changing Paradigms in the Diagnosis of Ischemic Heart Disease by Multimodality Imaging. Baggiano A, Italiano G, Guglielmo M, Fusini L, Guaricci AI, Maragna R, Giacari CM, Mushtaq S, Conte E, Annoni AD, Formenti A, Mancini ME, Andreini D, Rabbat M, Pepi M, Pontone G. J Clin Med. 2022 Jan 18;11(3):477