Mid-diastolic events (L events) include three phenomena appreciable on echocardiography occurring during diastasis: mid-diastolic transmitral flow velocity (L wave), mid-diastolic mitral valve motion (L motion), and mid-diastolic mitral annular velocity (L' wave). L wave is a known marker of advanced diastolic dysfunction in different pathological clinical settings such as left ventricle and atrial remodeling, overloaded states, and cardiomyopathies. Patients with L events have poor outcomes with a higher risk of developing heart failure symptoms and arrhythmic complications, including sudden cardiac death. The exact mechanism underlying the genesis of mid-diastolic events is not fully understood, just as the significance of these events in healthy young people or their presence at the tricuspid valve level. We also report an explicative case of a patient with L events studied using speckle tracking imaging of the left atrium and ventricle at the same reference heartbeat supporting the hypothesis of a post-early diastolic relaxation or a "two-step" ventricular relaxation for L wave genesis. Our paper seeks to extend knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms on mid-diastolic events and summarizes the current knowledge.
Mid-Diastolic Events (L Events): A Critical Review. Di Virgilio E, Monitillo F, Santoro D, D'Alessandro S, Guglielmo M, Baggiano A, Fusini L, Memeo R, Rabbat MG, Favale S, Cameli M, Guaricci AI, Pontone G. J Clin Med. 2021 Nov 30;10(23):5654. doi: 10.3390/jcm1023565