Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death among ischemic heart diseases and is associated with several long-term cardiovascular complications, such as angina, re-infarction, arrhythmias, and heart failure. However, MI is frequently accompanied by non-cardiovascular multiple comorbidities, including brain disorders such as stroke, anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment. Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence suggests a causal relationship between MI and stroke, but the precise underlying mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Indeed, the risk of stroke remains a current challenge in patients with MI, in spite of the improvement of medical treatment among this patient population has reduced the risk of stroke. In this review, the effects of the signaling from the ischemic heart to the brain, such as neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, and neurogenesis, and the possible actors mediating these effects, such as systemic inflammation, immunoresponse, extracellular vesicles, and microRNAs, are discussed.
Cerebral derailment after myocardial infarct: mechanisms and effects of the signaling from the ischemic heart to brain. Gelosa P, Castiglioni L, Rzemieniec J, Muluhie M, Camera M, Sironi L. J Mol Med (Berl). 2021 Oct 21. doi: 10.1007/s00109-021-02154-3