Interest in endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) has progressively grown during the past decade. Still, its use remains limited to highly specialized centers, mostly because it is considered an invasive procedure with poor diagnostic yield and inherent complications. Indeed, the diagnostic performance of EMB is strictly linked to the sample of myocardium we can obtain. If we can precisely localize areas of diseased myocardium, sampling error or inadequate withdrawals are minimized. In this state-of-the-art review, we provide guidance on how to technically and practically perform EMB guided by electroanatomic voltage mapping and intracardiac echocardiography, and review the evidence supporting this combined approach.
Bergonti M, Casella M, Compagnucci P, Russo AD, Tondo C. Electroanatomic Mapping System and Intracardiac-Echo to Guide Endomyocardial Biopsy. Card Electrophysiol Clin 2021 Jun;13(2):381-392. doi: 10.1016/j.ccep.2021.02.005.