Isolated Valve Amyloid Deposition in Aortic Stenosis: Potential Clinical and Pathophysiological Relevance

Int J Mol Sci

5 Aprile Apr 2024 one month ago
  • Poggio P, Myasoedova V, Valerio V.

Amyloid deposition within stenotic aortic valves (AVs) also appears frequent in the absence of cardiac amyloidosis, but its clinical and pathophysiological relevance has not been investigated. We will elucidate the rate of isolated AV amyloid deposition and its potential clinical and pathophysiological significance in aortic stenosis (AS). In 130 patients without systemic and/or cardiac amyloidosis, we collected the explanted AVs during cardiac surgery: 57 patients with calcific AS and 73 patients with AV insufficiency (41 with AV sclerosis and 32 without, who were used as controls). Amyloid deposition was found in 21 AS valves (37%), 4 sclerotic AVs (10%), and none of the controls. Patients with and without isolated AV amyloid deposition had similar clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and survival rates. Isolated AV amyloid deposition was associated with higher degrees of AV fibrosis (p = 0.0082) and calcification (p < 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry analysis suggested serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), in addition to transthyretin (TTR), as the protein possibly involved in AV amyloid deposition. Circulating SAA1 levels were within the normal range in all groups, and no difference was observed in AS patients with and without AV amyloid deposition. In vitro, AV interstitial cells (VICs) were stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β which induced increased SAA1-mRNA both in the control VICs (+6.4 ± 0.5, p = 0.02) and the AS VICs (+7.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.008). In conclusion, isolated AV amyloid deposition is frequent in the context of AS, but it does not appear to have potential clinical relevance. Conversely, amyloid deposition within AV leaflets, probably promoted by local inflammation, could play a role in AS pathophysiology.

Reference: Isolated Valve Amyloid Deposition in Aortic Stenosis: Potential Clinical and Pathophysiological Relevance

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