Myocardial Fibrosis at Cardiac MRI Helps Predict Adverse Clinical Outcome in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse
Background Patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) may develop adverse outcomes even in the absence of mitral regurgitation or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Purpose To investigate the prognostic value of mitral annulus disjunction (MAD) and myocardial fibrosis at late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac MRI in patients with MVP without moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation or LV dysfunction. Materials and Methods In this longitudinal retrospective study, 118 144 cardiac MRI studies were evaluated between October 2007 and June 2020 at 15 European tertiary medical centers. Follow-up was from the date of cardiac MRI examination to June 2020; the minimum and maximum follow-up intervals were 6 months and 156 months, respectively. Patients were excluded if at least one of the following conditions was present: cardiomyopathy, LV ejection fraction less than 40%, ischemic heart disease, congenital heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, moderate or worse mitral regurgitation, participation in competitive sport, or electrocardiogram suggestive of channelopathies. In the remainder, cardiac MRI studies were reanalyzed, and patients were included if they were aged 18 years or older, MVP was diagnosed at cardiac MRI, and clinical information and electrocardiogram monitoring were available within 3 months from cardiac MRI examination. The end point was a composite of adverse outcomes: sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), sudden cardiac death (SCD), or unexplained syncope. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed. Results A total of 474 patients (mean age, 47 years ± 16 [SD]; 244 women) were included. Over a median follow-up of 3.3 years, 18 patients (4%) reached the study end point. LGE presence (hazard ratio, 4.2 [95% CI: 1.5, 11.9]; P = .006) and extent (hazard ratio, 1.2 per 1% increase [95% CI: 1.1, 1.4]; P = .006), but not MAD presence (P = .89), were associated with clinical outcome. LGE presence had incremental prognostic value over MVP severity and sustained VT and aborted SCD at baseline (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.70 vs 0.62; P = .03). Conclusion In contrast to mitral annulus disjunction, myocardial fibrosis determined according to late gadolinium enhancement at cardiac MRI was associated with adverse outcome in patients with mitral valve prolapse without moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation or left ventricular dysfunction. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Gerber in this issue.
Reference: Myocardial Fibrosis at Cardiac MRI Helps Predict Adverse Clinical Outcome in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse. Figliozzi S, Georgiopoulos G, Lopes PM, Bauer KB, Moura-Ferreira S, Tondi L, Mushtaq S, Censi S, Pavon AG, Bassi I, Servato ML, Teske AJ, Biondi F, Filomena D, Pica S, Torlasco C, Muraru D, Monney P, Quattrocchi G, Maestrini V, Agati L, Monti L, Pedrotti P, Vandenberk B, Squeri A, Lombardi M, Ferreira AM, Schwitter J, Aquaro GD, Chiribiri A, Rodríguez Palomares JF, Yilmaz A, Andreini D, Florian A, Leiner T, Abecasis J, Badano LP, Bogaert J, Masci PG. Radiology. 2022 Sep 13:220454.