Purpose of review: Exercise causes various dynamic changes in all body parts either in healthy subject or in heart failure (HF) patients. The present review of current knowledge about HF patients with reduced ejection fraction focuses on dynamic changes along a "metabo-hemodynamic" perspective.
Recent findings: Studies on the dynamic changes occurring during exercise span many years. Thanks to the availability of advanced methods, it is nowadays possible to properly characterize respiratory, hemodynamic, and muscular function adjustments and their mismatch with the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Exercise is a dynamic event that involves several body functions. In HF patients, it is important to know at what level the limitation takes place in order to better manage these patients and to optimize therapeutic strategies.
Exercise Dynamic of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction. Rovai S, Mattavelli I, Salvioni E, Corrà U, Cattadori G, Campodonico J, Romani S, Agostoni P. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2021 Jun 29;23(7):92. doi: 10.1007/s11886-021-01491-6.