Background and Objectives: Pulmonary complications are a leading cause of morbidity after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to develop models to predict postoperative lung dysfunction and mortality. Materials and Methods: This was a single-center, observational, retrospective study. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 11,285 adult patients who underwent all types of cardiac surgery from 2003 to 2015. We developed logistic predictive models for in-hospital mortality, postoperative pulmonary complications occurring in the intensive care unit, and postoperative non-invasive mechanical ventilation when clinically indicated. Results: In the "preoperative model" predictors for mortality were advanced age (p < 0.001), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (p < 0.001) and emergent surgery (p = 0.036); predictors for non-invasive mechanical ventilation were advanced age (p < 0.001), low ejection fraction (p = 0.023), higher body mass index (p < 0.001) and preoperative renal failure (p = 0.043); predictors for postoperative pulmonary complications were preoperative chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p = 0.007), preoperative kidney injury (p < 0.001) and NYHA class (p = 0.033). In the "surgery model" predictors for mortality were intraoperative inotropes (p = 0.003) and intraoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (p < 0.001), which also predicted the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. There were no specific variables in the surgery model predicting the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation. In the "intensive care unit model", predictors for mortality were postoperative kidney injury (p < 0.001), tracheostomy (p < 0.001), inotropes (p = 0.029) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio at discharge (p = 0.028); predictors for non-invasive mechanical ventilation were kidney injury (p < 0.001), inotropes (p < 0.001), blood transfusions (p < 0.001) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio at the discharge (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this retrospective study, we identified the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics associated with mortality and complications following cardiac surgery.
Reference: Three Logistic Predictive Models for the Prediction of Mortality and Major Pulmonary Complications after Cardiac Surgery.
Bignami E, Guarnieri M, Giambuzzi I, Trumello C, Saglietti F, Gianni S, Belluschi I, Di Tomasso N, Corti D, Alfieri O, Gemma M. Medicina (Kaunas). 2023 Jul 26;59(8):1368.