Today, more and more studies focus on the processes in which macrophages are involved. These discoveries provide new perspectives on the cellular mechanisms that regulate the physiological functions of the healthy heart. Moreover, they offer a deeper knowledge of the pathologic processes underlying the onset and the evolution of specific cardiac impairment. The heterogeneous population of macrophages within the heart can be divided by origin, expression profile, and function. The pool of cardiac macrophages includes at least two distinct subsets with different ontogeny. The first one has an embryonic origin, deriving from the yolk sac and the fetal liver, while the other macrophage subset results from the postnatal recruitment of monocytes produced in the bone marrow. This review will focus on new phenotypes and functions of cardiac macrophages that have been identified in the last years and that need to be deeply studied to unveil new potential therapies aimed at treating cardiac diseases.
Reference: Macrophages in the heart: Active players or simple bystanders? Bozzi M, Parisi V, Poggio P. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2022;368:109-141.