Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a syndrome defined by the presence of heart failure symptoms and increased levels of circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and various degrees of diastolic dysfunction (DD). HFpEF is a complex condition that encompasses a wide range of different etiologies. Cardiovascular imaging plays a pivotal role in diagnosing HFpEF, in identifying specific underlying etiologies, in prognostic stratification, and in therapeutic individualization. Echocardiography is the first line imaging modality with its wide availability; it has high spatial and temporal resolution and can reliably assess systolic and diastolic function. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard for cardiac morphology and function assessment, and has superior contrast resolution to look in depth into tissue changes and help to identify specific HFpEF etiologies. Differently, the most important role of nuclear imaging [i.e., planar scintigraphy and/or single photon emission CT (SPECT)] consists in the screening and diagnosis of cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) in patients with HFpEF. Cardiac CT can accurately evaluate coronary artery disease both from an anatomical and functional point of view, but tissue characterization methods have also been developed. The aim of this review is to critically summarize the current uses and future perspectives of echocardiography, nuclear imaging, CT, and CMR in patients with HFpEF.
Reference: Advances in Multimodality Cardiovascular Imaging in the Diagnosis of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction. Del Torto A, Guaricci AI, Pomarico F, Guglielmo M, Fusini L, Monitillo F, Santoro D, Vannini M, Rossi A, Muscogiuri G, Baggiano A, Pontone G. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Mar 9;9:758975.