Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a major health issue worldwide, as patients with T2DM show an excess risk of death for cardiovascular causes, twice as high as the general population. Among the many complications of T2DM, heart failure (HF) deserves special consideration as one of the leading causes of morbidity and reduced life expectancy. T2DM has been associated with different phenotypes of HF, including HF with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can evaluate the metabolic and ventilatory alterations related to myocardial dysfunction and/or peripheral impairment, representing a unique tool for the clinician to study the whole HF spectrum. While CPET allows for a thorough evaluation of functional capacity, it cannot directly differentiate central and peripheral determinants of effort intolerance. Combining CPET with imaging techniques could provide even higher accuracy and further insights into the progression of the disease since signs of left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction can be detected during exercise, even in asymptomatic diabetic individuals. This review aims to dissect the alterations in cardiopulmonary function characterising patients with T2DM and HF to improve patient risk stratification.
Impact of diabetes on cardiopulmonary function: the added value of a combined cardiopulmonary and echocardiography stress test. Pugliese NR, Pieroni A, De Biase N, Di Fiore V, Nesti L, Agostoni P, Dini FL. Heart Fail Rev. 2021 Nov 24. doi: 10.1007/s10741-021-10194-7