Diabetes strongly contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in these patients. It is widely accepted that hyperglycemia impairs hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilization from the bone marrow (BM) by inducing stem cell niche dysfunction. Moreover, a recent study demonstrated that type 2 diabetic patients are characterized by significant depletion of circulating provascular progenitor cells and increased frequency of inflammatory cells. This unbalance, potentially responsible for the reduction of intrinsic vascular homeostatic capacity and for the establishment of a low-grade inflammatory status, suggests that bone BM-derived HSPCs are not only victims but also active perpetrators in diabetic complications. In this review, we will discuss the most recent literature on the molecular mechanisms underpinning hyperglycemia-mediated BM dysfunction and differentiation abnormality of HSPCs. Moreover, a section will be dedicated to the new glucose-lowering therapies that by specifically targeting the culprits may prevent or treat diabetic complications.
Vinci MC, Gambini E, Bassetti B, Genovese S, Pompilio G. When Good Guys Turn Bad: Bone Marrow's and Hematopoietic Stem Cells' Role in the Pathobiology of Diabetic Complications. Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 29;21(11):E3864