Alveolar β2-receptor blockade worsens lung diffusion in heart failure (HF). This effect could be mitigated by stimulating alveolar β2-receptors. We investigated the safety and the effects of indacaterol on lung diffusion, lung mechanics, sleep respiratory behavior, cardiac rhythm, welfare, and exercise performance in HF patients treated with a selective (bisoprolol) or a non-selective (carvedilol) β-blocker. Study procedures were performed before and after indacaterol and placebo treatments according to a cross-over, randomized, double-blind protocol in forty-four patients (27 on bisoprolol and 17 on carvedilol).
Contini M, Spadafora E, Barbieri S, Gugliandolo P, Salvioni E, Magini A, Apostolo A, Palermo P, Alimento M, Agostoni P. Effects of β2-receptor stimulation by indacaterol in chronic heart failure treated with selective or non-selective β-blockers: a randomized trial. Sci Rep 2020 Apr 28;10(1):7101. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-62644-1.