Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is implicated in the pathogenesis of different clinical syndromes in which it plays variable roles. In 2017 and 2018, four randomized clinical trials were published, allowing for the clarification of certain issues pertaining to cryptogenic stroke. Recently, eight European scientific societies collaborated to the writing of an interdisciplinary international position paper on PFO and cryptogenic stroke, based upon best available evidence, with the aim of defining the principles needed to guide decision making. Nonetheless, a tailored approach is not suitably addressed by standard position documents, considering that decisions about optimal management of PFO patients with left circulation thromboembolism are often challenging, mostly due to comorbidities and complex clinical scenarios.A panel of Italian cardiology experts gathered under the auspices of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE) for comprehensive discussion and consensus development, with the aim of providing practical recommendations, for both clinical and interventional cardiologists, regarding optimal management of PFO in patients with cerebral or systemic thromboembolism. In this position paper, various clinical scenarios in patients with and without high-risk PFO features are presented and discussed, including PFO patients with associated conditions (e.g. hypercoagulable states, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, short runs of atrial fibrillation), and special subsets (e.g. patients with risk factors for atrial fibrillation, patients aged ≥65 years, patients who refused percutaneous PFO closure), with the Panel's recommendations being provided for each scenario.
Tarantini G, D'Amico G, Baracchini C, Berni A, Berti S, Chessa M, Esposito G, Gaspardone A, Menozzi A, Meucci F, Musumeci G, Onorato E, Rigattieri S, Saia F, Santoro P, Scacciatella P, Trabattoni D, Fraccaro C, Pristipino C. [Position paper of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (SICI-GISE): Management of patent foramen ovale in patients with cerebral or systemic thromboembolism - 2020]. G Ital Cardiol 2020 Apr;21(4 Suppl 2):50S-59S. doi: 10.1714/3336.33075.