It is ascertained that the epidemiology and social impact of ischemic heart disease is substantially different between the two genders. Moreover, there is substantial evidence that gender is able to modulate the clinical manifestation of most cardiac diseases, and specifically of coronary artery disease. Particularly, women present less angiographically significant coronary artery disease, smaller vessel lumen, and less plaque rupture occurrence as compared to men. On the contrary, manifestations as vasospasm, impaired vasodilatation at epicardial level, and microvascular dysfunction are more common in female. In clinical practice, it is important to know the gender-based aspects of clinical disease expression and how to diversify the diagnostic work-up. Cardiac Computed Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance are relatively new diagnostic imaging tools employed for studying both the cardiac structures and the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. In this paper, we aim to overview the non-invasive diagnostic role in a gender's dimension, mainly focusing on Cardiac Computed Tomography and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in ischemic heart disease, and to understand whether the existing evidences support a different diagnostic work-up approach.
Guaricci AI, Carrabba N, Aquaro GD, Rabbat MG, Gaemperli O, Bucciarelli Ducci C, Pontone G; Working Group of Magnetic Resonance and Working Group of Computed Tomography and Nuclear Medicine of the Italian Society of Cardiology. Advanced imaging techniques (CT and MR): Gender-based diagnostic work-up in ischemic heart disease? Int J Cardiol 2018 Nov 7. pii: S0167-5273(18)34708-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.11.010. [Epub ahead of print]