Heart failure (HF) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and represents an escalating problem for healthcare systems. The identification of asymptomatic patients with underlying cardiac subclinical disease would create an opportunity for early intervention and prevention of symptomatic HF. Traditional biomarkers are very useful as diagnostic and prognostic tools in the cardiovascular field; however, their application is usually limited to overt cardiac disease. On the other hand, a growing number of studies is investigating the diagnostic and prognostic potential of new biomarkers, such as micro-RNAs (miRNA), long non-coding RNAs, and exosome cargo, because of their involvement in the early phases of cardiac dysfunction. Unfortunately, their use in asymptomatic phases remains a distant goal. The aim of this review is to gather the current knowledge of old and novel biomarkers in the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic individuals.
Janjusevic M, Fluca AL, Ferro F, Gagno G, D'Alessandra Y, Beltrami AP, Sinagra G, Aleksova A. Traditional and Emerging Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Dysfunction-Promising Non-Coding RNAs and Exosomes as Biomarkers in Early Phases of Cardiac Damage. Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 6;22(9):4937.doi: 10.3390/ijms22094937.