Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) is a multiparametric, non-ionizing, non-invasive imaging technique, which represents the imaging gold standard to study cardiac anatomy, function and tissue characterization. Faced with a wide range of clinical application, in this review we aim to provide a comprehensive guide for clinicians about MR safety, contraindications and image quality. Starting from the physical interactions of the static magnetic fields, gradients and radiofrequencies with the human body, we will describe the most common metal and electronic devices which are allowed (MR-safe), allowed under limited conditions (MR-conditional) or contraindicated (MR-unsafe). Moreover, some conditions potentially affecting image quality and patient comfort will be mentioned, including arrhythmias, claustrophobia, and poor breath-hold capacity. Finally, we will discuss the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of current gadolinium-based contrast agents, their contraindications and their potential acute and chronic adverse effects, as well as the safety issue concerning the use of vasodilating/inotropic agents in stress cardiac MR.
Barison A, Baritussio A, Cipriani A, Lazzari, Aquaro GD, Guaricci AI, Pica S, Pontone G, Todiere G, Indolfi C, Dellegrottaglie S; Working Group on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance of the Italian Society of Cardiology. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance: What clinicians should know about safety and contraindications. Int J Cardiol 2021 Feb 8;S0167-5273(21)00254-0.doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.02.003.