Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is common in the developed world and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Accurate risk assessment methods and prognostic variables are therefore needed to guide clinical decision making for medical therapy and surgical interventions with the ultimate goal of decreasing risk and improving health outcomes. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and its most commonly used ventilatory gas exchange variables for the purpose of risk stratification and management of HFrEF.
Wagner J, Agostoni P, Arena R, Belardinelli R, Dumitrescu D, Hager A, Myers J, Rauramaa R, Riley M, Takken T, Schmidt-Trucksäss A. The Role of Gas Exchange Variables in Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing for Risk Stratification and Management of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction. Am Heart J 2018 May 22;202:116-126.