Electrophysiology procedures are traditionally performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Nowadays a growing interest in the radiation risk associated to these procedures has been cultivated, since radiation exposure has non-neglegible stochastic and deterministic effects on health. A correlation between radiation exposure and lifetime malignancy effect is difficult to establish and the threshold of a completely safe exposure dose is unknown. Thus, electrophisiologists have become aware of the use of fluoroscopy and they have tried to use all the complementary imaging technologies available in order to reduce the radiological exposure. This review is aimed at evaluating the radiation exposure risk, both for the patients and the operators. We describe electroanatomical mapping systems and technologies, which allow the reduction of radiation exposure. We review the main literature based on different catheter ablation procedures with the use of the abovementioned technologies, specifically focusing on feasibility, safety, and radiation exposure. Finally, we highlight the necessity of increasing the radiological risk awareness among operators and cardiological scientific societies.
Casella M, Ribatti V, Catto V, Vettor G, Fassini G, Biagioli V, Dello Russo A, Tondo C. Benefits of electroanatomic ablation of conventional cardiac arrhytmias: from fluoroscopy to zero X-ray mapping. Minerva Cardioangiol 2017 Aug 31. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4725.17.04478-4. [Epub ahead of print]