The global impact of the spectrum of valve diseases is a crucial, fast-growing, and underrecognized health problem. The most prevalent valve diseases, requiring surgical intervention, are represented by calcific and degenerative processes occurring in heart valves, in particular, aortic and mitral valve. Due to the increasing elderly population, these pathologies will gain weight in the global health burden. The two most common valve diseases are aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and mitral valve regurgitation (MR). AVS is the most commonly encountered valve disease nowadays and affects almost 5% of elderly population. In particular, AVS poses a great challenge due to the multiple comorbidities and frailty of this patient subset. MR is also a common valve pathology and has an estimated prevalence of 3% in the general population, affecting more than 176 million people worldwide. This review will focus on pathophysiological changes in both these valve diseases, starting from the description of the anatomical aspects of normal valve, highlighting all the main cellular and molecular features involved in the pathological progression and cardiac consequences. This review also evaluates the main approaches in clinical management of these valve diseases, taking into account of the main published clinical guidelines.
Perrucci GL, Zanobini M, Gripari P, Songia P, Alshaikh B, Tremoli E, Poggio P. Pathophysiology of Aortic Stenosis and Mitral Regurgitation. Compr Physiol 2017;7(3):799-818