Risk stratification is a mainstay in the care of cardiac and pulmonary disorders, as the identification of adverse outcomes helps provide measures to improve survival and quality of life. Cardiopulmonary exercise test is a useful prognostic tool in the clinical evaluation of several pathological conditions, such as heart diseases, respiratory disorders, and pulmonary hypertension.
If not contraindicated, a cardiopulmonary exercise test should always be performed and integrated with clinical, laboratory, and hemodynamic parameters to better stratify patient risk. In heart failure, cardiopulmonary exercise test is important in all the stages of patient management, from diagnosis to risk assessment.
The prognostic role of cardiopulmonary exercise test in heart failure is amplified when included in a multiparametric risk stratification methodology, currently considered the best method to assess patient outcome.
- Paolillo S, Agostoni P. Prognostic Role of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Clinical Practice. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Mar 31. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201610-818FR. [Epub ahead of print] Go to PubMed