The most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulants worldwide are the vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) such as warfarin. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of VKAs are important because deviations from their narrow therapeutic window can result in bleedings due to over-anticoagulation or thrombosis because of under-anticoagulation. In addition to pharmacodynamic interactions (e.g., augmented bleeding risk for concomitant use of NSAIDs), interactions with drugs, foods, herbs, and over-the-counter medications may affect the risk/benefit ratio of VKAs.
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) including Factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) and thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) are poised to replace warfarin. Phase-3 studies and real-world evaluations have established that the safety profile of DOACs is superior to those of VKAs. However, some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions are expected. Herein the Authors present a critical review of VKAs and DOACs with focus on their potential for interactions with drugs, foods, herbs and over-the-counter medications.
- Di Minno A, Frigerio B, Spadarella G, Ravani A, Sansaro D, Amato M, Kitzmiller JP, Pepi M, Tremoli E, Baldassarre D. Old and new oral anticoagulants: Food, herbal medicines and drug interactions. Blood Rev 2017 Feb 5 [Epub ahead of print] Go to PubMed