Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death. The management of the acute phase of VTE is well described in several papers and guidelines, whereas the management of the follow-up of the patients affected from VTE is less defined.
A new position paper of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO) tries to fill the gap using currently available evidence and the opinion of the experts to suggest the most useful way to manage patients in the chronic phase.The clinical and laboratory tests acquired during the acute phase of the disease drives the decision of the following period.
Acquired or congenital thrombophilic factors may be identified to explain an apparently not provoked VTE. In some patients, a not yet clinically evident cancer could be the trigger of VTE and this could lead to a different strategy. The main target of the post-acute management is to prevent relapse of the disease and to identify those patients who could worsen or develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
The knowledge of the etiopathogenetic ground is important to address the therapeutic approach, choosing the best antithrombotic strategy and deciding how long therapy should last. During the follow-up period, prognostic stratification should be updated on the basis of new evidences eventually acquired.Treatment of VTE is mainly based on oral or parenteral anticoagulation. Oral direct inhibitors of coagulation represent an interesting new therapy for the acute and extended period of treatment.
- D'Agostino C, Zonzin P, Enea I, Gulizia MM, Ageno W, Agostoni P, Azzarito M, Becattini C, Bongarzoni A, Bux F, Casazza F, Corrieri N, D'Alto M, D'Amato N, D'Armini AM, De Natale MG, Di Minno G, Favretto G, Filippi L, Grazioli V, Palareti G, Pesavento R, Roncon L, Scelsi L, Tufano A. ANMCO Position paper: Recommendations for the follow-up of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism. G Ital Cardiol 2016;17(9):68-109. Go to PubMed